Scientific American has listed several opportunities for non-scientists to do real science helping real research:
NestWatch: observing North American birds, nesting and behavior.
Ant School: observing and sampling ants in urban and sub-urban environments including kitchens
Rain and Snow Network: Precipitation and observation. This could become important in understanding microclimates.
Firefly Watch: Fireflies are declining. Find out why.
Monarch Health: Research to determine parasitism in monarch butterflies.
Wildlab: bird distribution research using cell phones
Valley of the Khans: Help scientists direct archeological research in Mongolia by examining satellite photos